316.172 Traffic to stop for school bus.—
(1)(a) Any person using, operating, or driving a vehicle on or over the roads or highways of this state shall, upon approaching any school bus which displays a stop signal, bring such vehicle to a full stop while the bus is stopped, and the vehicle shall not pass the school bus until the signal has been withdrawn. A person who violates this section commits a moving violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318.
(b) Any person using, operating, or driving a vehicle that passes a school bus on the side that children enter and exit when the school bus displays a stop signal commits a moving violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318, and is subject to a mandatory hearing under the provisions of s. 318.19.
(2) The driver of a vehicle upon a divided highway with an unpaved space of at least 5 feet, a raised median, or a physical barrier is not required to stop when traveling in the opposite direction of a school bus which is stopped in accordance with the provisions of this section.
(3) Every school bus shall stop as far to the right of the street as possible and shall display warning lights and stop signals as required by rules of the State Board of Education before discharging or loading passengers. When possible, a school bus shall not stop where the visibility is obscured for a distance of 200 feet either way from the bus.
History.–s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 89, ch. 77-104; s. 3, ch. 85-309; s. 1, ch. 87-167; s. 23, ch. 95-143; s. 19, ch. 96-350; s. 1, ch. 97-10.
Note.–Former s. 316.139.
316.183 Unlawful speed.—
(1) No person shall drive a vehicle on a highway at a speed greater than is reasonable and prudent under the conditions and having regard to the actual and potential hazards then existing. In every event, speed shall be controlled as may be necessary to avoid colliding with any person, vehicle, or other conveyance or object on or entering the highway in compliance with legal requirements and the duty of all persons to use due care.
(2) On all streets or highways, the maximum speed limits for all vehicles must be 30 miles per hour in business or residence districts, and 55 miles per hour at any time at all other locations. However, with respect to a residence district, a county or municipality may set a maximum speed limit of 20 or 25 miles per hour on local streets and highways after an investigation determines that such a limit is reasonable. It is not necessary to conduct a separate investigation for each residence district. The minimum speed limit on all highways that comprise a part of the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways and have not fewer than four lanes is 40 miles per hour, except that when the posted speed limit is 70 miles per hour, the minimum speed limit is 50 miles per hour.
(3) No school bus shall exceed the posted speed limits, not to exceed 55 miles per hour at any time.
(4) The driver of every vehicle shall, consistent with the requirements of subsection (1), drive at an appropriately reduced speed when:
(a) Approaching and crossing an intersection or railway grade crossing;
(b) Approaching and going around a curve;
(c) Approaching a hill crest;
(d) Traveling upon any narrow or winding roadway; and
(e) Any special hazard exists with respect to pedestrians or other traffic or by reason of weather or highway conditions.
(5) No person shall drive a motor vehicle at such a slow speed as to impede or block the normal and reasonable movement of traffic, except when reduced speed is necessary for safe operation or in compliance with law.
(6) No driver of a vehicle shall exceed the posted maximum speed limit in a work zone area.
(7) A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a moving violation as provided in chapter 318.
History.–s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-159; s. 3, ch. 76-218; s. 3, ch. 76-286; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 6, ch. 87-161; s. 2, ch. 88-47; s. 5, ch. 88-91; s. 4, ch. 88-93; s. 21, ch. 90-227; s. 17, ch. 94-306; s. 20, ch. 96-350; s. 135, ch. 99-248; s. 32, ch. 2005-164.
316.185 Special hazards.–The fact that the speed of a vehicle is lower than the prescribed limits shall not relieve the driver from the duty to decrease speed when approaching and crossing an intersection, when approaching and going around a curve, when approaching a hill crest, when traveling upon any narrow or winding roadway, or when special hazards exist or may exist with respect to pedestrians or other traffic or by reason of weather or other roadway conditions, and speed shall be decreased as may be necessary to avoid colliding with any person, vehicle, or other conveyance on or entering the street in compliance with legal requirements and the duty of all persons to use due care. A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a moving violation as provided in chapter 318.
History.–s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 136, ch. 99-248.
316.187 Establishment of state speed zones.—
(1) Whenever the Department of Transportation determines, upon the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation, that any speed is greater or less than is reasonable or safe under the conditions found to exist at any intersection or other place, or upon any part of a highway outside of a municipality or upon any state roads, connecting links or extensions thereof within a municipality, the Department of Transportation may determine and declare a reasonable and safe speed limit thereat which shall be effective when appropriate signs giving notice thereof are erected at the intersection or other place or part of the highway.
(2)(a) The maximum allowable speed limit on limited access highways is 70 miles per hour.
(b) The maximum allowable speed limit on any other highway which is outside an urban area of 5,000 or more persons and which has at least four lanes divided by a median strip is 65 miles per hour.
(c) The Department of Transportation is authorized to set such maximum and minimum speed limits for travel over other roadways under its authority as it deems safe and advisable, not to exceed as a maximum limit 60 miles per hour.
(3) Violation of the speed limits established under this section must be cited as a moving violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318.
History.–s. 1, ch. 71-135; ss. 1, 18, ch. 76-31; s. 1, ch. 76-218; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 1, ch. 87-352; s. 9, ch. 93-164; s. 47, ch. 96-323; s. 21, ch. 96-350.
Note.–Former s. 316.181.
316.189 Establishment of municipal and county speed zones.—
(1) MUNICIPAL SPEED.–The maximum speed within any municipality is 30 miles per hour. With respect to residence districts, a municipality may set a maximum speed limit of 20 or 25 miles per hour on local streets and highways after an investigation determines that such a limit is reasonable. It shall not be necessary to conduct a separate investigation for each residence district. A municipality may set speed zones altering the speed limit, both as to maximum, not to exceed 60 miles per hour, and minimum, after investigation determines such a change is reasonable and in conformity to criteria promulgated by the Department of Transportation, except that no changes shall be made on state highways or connecting links or extensions thereof, which shall be changed only by the Department of Transportation.
(2) SPEED ON COUNTY ROADS.–The maximum speed on any county-maintained road is:
(a) In any business or residence district, 30 miles per hour in the daytime or nighttime; provided that with respect to residence districts a county may set a maximum speed limit of 25 miles per hour after an investigation determines that such a limit is reasonable; and it shall not be necessary to conduct a separate investigation in each residence district.
(b) On any other part of a county road not a business or residence district, as set forth in s. 316.183.
However, the board of county commissioners may set speed zones altering such speeds, both as to maximum and minimum, after investigation determines such a change is reasonable and in conformity to criteria promulgated by the Department of Transportation, except that no such speed zone shall permit a speed of more than 60 miles per hour.
(3) POSTING OF SPEED LIMITS.–All speed zones shall be posted with clearly legible signs. No change in speeds from 30 miles per hour or from those established in s. 316.183 shall take effect until the zone is posted by the authority changing the speed pursuant to this section and s. 316.187. All signs which limit or establish speed limits, maximum and minimum, shall be so placed and so painted as to be plainly visible and legible in daylight or in darkness when illuminated by headlights.
(4) PENALTY.–Violation of the speed limits established under this section must be cited as a moving violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318.
History.–s. 1, ch. 71-135; ss. 1, 19, ch. 76-31; s. 2, ch. 76-218; s. 1, ch. 88-47; s. 22, ch. 90-227; s. 48, ch. 96-323; s. 22, ch. 96-350.
Note.–Former s. 316.182.
316.1893 Establishment of enhanced penalty zones; designation.—
(1) It is the intent of the Legislature to prevent vehicular fatalities by prioritizing enforcement on segments of highways that have a high incidence of speeding-related crashes. Enforcement shall also be prioritized during the times that speeding-related crashes most often occur. The enforcement of these zones shall be in a way that maximizes public safety.
(2) No later than July 1, 2007, the Department of Transportation shall identify enhanced penalty zones on state roads in Brevard, Duval, and Palm Beach Counties as a pilot program in an effort to reduce speeding-related crashes on state roads. This pilot program shall stand repealed July 1, 2010, unless reviewed and saved from repeal through reenactment by the Legislature.
(3) The Department of Transportation, pursuant to the authority granted under s. 316.187, is authorized to set such maximum and minimum speed limits for travel within enhanced penalty zones as it deems safe and advisable.
(4) The Department of Transportation shall adopt a uniform system of traffic control devices for use in conjunction with enhanced penalty zones pursuant to the authority granted under s. 316.0745.
(5) A person may not drive a vehicle on a roadway designated as an enhanced penalty zone at a speed greater than that posted in the enhanced penalty zone in accordance with this section. A person who violates the speed limit within a legally posted enhanced penalty zone established under this section commits a moving violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318.
(6) The Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles shall annually publish the date, time, and number of citations issued both in and outside enhanced penalty zones and shall make available statistical information based thereon as to the number and circumstances of traffic citations inside an enhanced penalty zone.
History.–s. 1, ch. 2006-296.
316.1895 Establishment of school speed zones, enforcement; designation.—
(1)(a) The Department of Transportation, pursuant to the authority granted under s. 316.0745, shall adopt a uniform system of traffic control devices and pedestrian control devices for use on the streets and highways in the state surrounding all schools, public and private.
(b) The Department of Transportation shall compile, publish, and transmit a manual containing all specifications and requirements with respect to the system of devices established pursuant to paragraph (a) to the governing body of each county and municipality in the state, and the Department of Transportation and each county and municipality in the state shall install and maintain such traffic and pedestrian control devices in conformity with such uniform system.
(2) Upon request from the appropriate local government, the Department of Transportation shall install and maintain such traffic and pedestrian control devices on state-maintained roads as prescribed in this section for all prekindergarten early-intervention schools that receive federal funding through the Headstart program.
(3)(a) A school zone located on a state-maintained primary or secondary road shall be maintained by the Department of Transportation. However, nothing herein shall prohibit the Department of Transportation from entering into agreements with counties or municipalities whereby the local governmental entities would maintain specified school zones on state-maintained primary or secondary roads.
(b) The county shall have the responsibility to maintain a school zone located outside of any municipality and on a county road.
(c) A municipality shall have the responsibility to maintain a school zone located in a municipality.
(d) For the purposes of this section, the term “maintained” with respect to any school zone means the care and maintenance of all school zone signs, markers, traffic control devices, and pedestrian control devices.
(4)(a) A school zone maintained by a county shall be periodically inspected by the county sheriff’s office or any other qualified agent to determine whether or not the school zone is being properly maintained.
(b) A school zone maintained by a municipality shall be periodically inspected by the municipal police department or any other qualified agent to determine whether or not the school zone is being properly maintained.
(5) A school zone speed limit may not be less than 15 miles per hour except by local regulation. No school zone speed limit shall be more than 20 miles per hour in an urbanized area, as defined in s. 334.03. Such speed limit may be in force only during those times 30 minutes before, during, and 30 minutes after the periods of time when pupils are arriving at a regularly scheduled breakfast program or a regularly scheduled school session and leaving a regularly scheduled school session.
(6) Permanent signs designating school zones and school zone speed limits shall be uniform in size and color, and shall have the times during which the restrictive speed limit is enforced clearly designated thereon. Flashing beacons activated by a time clock, or other automatic device, or manually activated may be used as an alternative to posting the times during which the restrictive school speed limit is enforced. The Department of Transportation shall establish adequate standards for the signs and flashing beacons.
(7) Portable signs designating school zones and school zone speed limits shall be uniform in size and color. Such signs shall be erected on the roadway only during those hours when pupils are arriving at and leaving regularly scheduled school sessions. The Department of Transportation shall establish adequate standards for the signs.
(8) Nothing herein shall prohibit the use of automatic traffic control devices for the control of vehicular and pedestrian traffic at school crossings.
(9) All flags, belts, apparel, and devices issued, supplied, or furnished to pupils or persons acting in the capacity of school safety patrols, special school police, or special police appointed to control and direct traffic at or near schools, when used during periods of darkness, shall be made at least in part with retroreflective materials so as to be visible at night at 300 feet to approaching motorists when viewed under lawful low-beam headlights.
(10) A person may not drive a vehicle on a roadway designated as a school zone at a speed greater than that posted in the school zone in accordance with this section. Violation of the speed limits established pursuant to this section must be cited as a moving violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318.
History.–s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 73-161; s. 1, ch. 74-63; s. 1, ch. 74-366; ss. 1, 19, ch. 76-31; s. 2, ch. 76-159; s. 1, ch. 91-124; s. 23, ch. 96-350; s. 137, ch. 99-248; s. 10, ch. 99-385; s. 1, ch. 2003-40.
Note.–Former s. 316.184.
316.1905 Electrical, mechanical, or other speed calculating devices; power of arrest; evidence.—
(1) Whenever any peace officer engaged in the enforcement of the motor vehicle laws of this state uses an electronic, electrical, mechanical, or other device used to determine the speed of a motor vehicle on any highway, road, street, or other public way, such device shall be of a type approved by the department and shall have been tested to determine that it is operating accurately. Tests for this purpose shall be made not less than once each 6 months, according to procedures and at regular intervals of time prescribed by the department.
(2) Any police officer, upon receiving information relayed to him or her from a fellow officer stationed on the ground or in the air operating such a device that a driver of a vehicle has violated the speed laws of this state, may arrest the driver for violation of said laws where reasonable and proper identification of the vehicle and the speed of same has been communicated to the arresting officer.
(3)(a) A witness otherwise qualified to testify shall be competent to give testimony against an accused violator of the motor vehicle laws of this state when such testimony is derived from the use of such an electronic, electrical, mechanical, or other device used in the calculation of speed, upon showing that the speed calculating device which was used had been tested. However, the operator of any visual average speed computer device shall first be certified as a competent operator of such device by the department.
(b) Upon the production of a certificate, signed and witnessed, showing that such device was tested within the time period specified and that such device was working properly, a presumption is established to that effect unless the contrary shall be established by competent evidence.
(c) Any person accused pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be entitled to have the officer actually operating the device appear in court and testify upon oral or written motion.
History.–s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 313, ch. 95-148.
Note.–Former s. 316.058.
316.1906 Radar speed-measuring devices; evidence, admissibility.—
(a) “Audio Doppler” means a backup audible signal that translates the radar’s Doppler shift into a tone which can be heard by the radar operator.
(b) “Audio warning tone” refers to an auxiliary radar device which alerts the operator, by means of an audible tone, to the presence of a speed registration above a preset level.
(c) “Automatic speed lock” refers to an auxiliary radar device which immediately holds any speed reading obtained above a preset level.
(d) “Officer” means any:
1. “Law enforcement officer” who is elected, appointed, or employed full time by any municipality or the state or any political subdivision thereof; who is vested with the authority to bear arms and make arrests; and whose primary responsibility is the prevention and detection of crime or the enforcement of the penal, criminal, traffic, or highway laws of the state;
2. “Part-time law enforcement officer” who is employed or appointed less than full time, as defined by an employing agency, with or without compensation; who is vested with authority to bear arms and make arrests; and whose primary responsibility is the prevention and detection of crime or the enforcement of the penal, criminal, traffic, or highway laws of the state; or
3. “Auxiliary law enforcement officer” who is employed or appointed, with or without compensation; who aids or assists a full-time or part-time law enforcement officer; and who, while under the direct supervision of a full-time or part-time law enforcement officer, has the authority to arrest and perform law enforcement functions.
(e) “Radar” means law enforcement speed radar, any laser-based or microwave-based speed-measurement system employed by a law enforcement agency to detect the speed of motorists.
(2) Evidence of the speed of a vehicle measured by any radar speed-measuring device shall be inadmissible in any proceeding with respect to an alleged violation of provisions of law regulating the lawful speed of vehicles, unless such evidence of speed is obtained by an officer who:
(a) Has satisfactorily completed the radar training course established by the Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission pursuant to s. 943.17(1)(b).
(b) Has made an independent visual determination that the vehicle is operating in excess of the applicable speed limit.
(c) Has written a citation based on evidence obtained from radar when conditions permit the clear assignment of speed to a single vehicle.
(d) Is using radar which has no automatic speed locks and no audio alarms, unless disconnected or deactivated.
(e) Is operating radar with audio Doppler engaged.
(f) Is using a radar unit which meets the minimum design criteria for such units established by the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles.
History.–s. 1, ch. 80-276; s. 24, ch. 84-258; s. 1, ch. 92-193.
316.191 Racing on highways.—
(1) As used in this section, the term:
(a) “Conviction” means a determination of guilt that is the result of a plea or trial, regardless of whether adjudication is withheld.
(b) “Drag race” means the operation of two or more motor vehicles from a point side by side at accelerating speeds in a competitive attempt to outdistance each other, or the operation of one or more motor vehicles over a common selected course, from the same point to the same point, for the purpose of comparing the relative speeds or power of acceleration of such motor vehicle or motor vehicles within a certain distance or time limit.
(c) “Racing” means the use of one or more motor vehicles in an attempt to outgain or outdistance another motor vehicle, to prevent another motor vehicle from passing, to arrive at a given destination ahead of another motor vehicle or motor vehicles, or to test the physical stamina or endurance of drivers over long-distance driving routes.
(2)(a) A person may not:
1. Drive any motor vehicle, including any motorcycle, in any race, speed competition or contest, drag race or acceleration contest, test of physical endurance, or exhibition of speed or acceleration or for the purpose of making a speed record on any highway, roadway, or parking lot;
2. In any manner participate in, coordinate, facilitate, or collect moneys at any location for any such race, competition, contest, test, or exhibition;
3. Knowingly ride as a passenger in any such race, competition, contest, test, or exhibition; or
4. Purposefully cause the movement of traffic to slow or stop for any such race, competition, contest, test, or exhibition.
Any person who violates any provision of this paragraph commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. Any person who violates any provision of this paragraph shall pay a fine of not less than $500 and not more than $1,000, and the department shall revoke the driver license of a person so convicted for 1 year. A hearing may be requested pursuant to s. 322.271.
(b) Any person who violates paragraph (a) within 5 years after the date of a prior violation that resulted in a conviction for a violation of this subsection commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, and shall pay a fine of not less than $500 and not more than $1,000. The department shall also revoke the driver license of that person for 2 years. A hearing may be requested pursuant to s. 322.271.
(c) In any case charging a violation of paragraph (a), the court shall be provided a copy of the driving record of the person charged and may obtain any records from any other source to determine if one or more prior convictions of the person for violation of paragraph (a) have occurred within 5 years prior to the charged offense.
(3) Whenever a law enforcement officer determines that a person was engaged in a drag race or race, as described in subsection (1), the officer may immediately arrest and take such person into custody. The court may enter an order of impoundment or immobilization as a condition of incarceration or probation. Within 7 business days after the date the court issues the order of impoundment or immobilization, the clerk of the court must send notice by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the registered owner of the motor vehicle, if the registered owner is a person other than the defendant, and to each person of record claiming a lien against the motor vehicle.
(a) Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, the impounding agency shall release a motor vehicle under the conditions provided in s. 316.193(6)(e), (f), (g), and (h), if the owner or agent presents a valid driver license at the time of pickup of the motor vehicle.
(b) All costs and fees for the impoundment or immobilization, including the cost of notification, must be paid by the owner of the motor vehicle or, if the motor vehicle is leased or rented, by the person leasing or renting the motor vehicle, unless the impoundment or immobilization order is dismissed. All provisions of s. 713.78 shall apply.
(c) Any motor vehicle used in violation of subsection (2) may be impounded for a period of 10 business days if a law enforcement officer has arrested and taken a person into custody pursuant to this subsection and the person being arrested is the registered owner or coowner of the motor vehicle. If the arresting officer finds that the criteria of this paragraph are met, the officer may immediately impound the motor vehicle. The law enforcement officer shall notify the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles of any impoundment for violation of this subsection in accordance with procedures established by the department. The provisions of paragraphs (a) and (b) shall be applicable to such impoundment.
(4) Any motor vehicle used in violation of subsection (2) by any person within 5 years after the date of a prior conviction of that person for a violation under subsection (2) may be seized and forfeited as provided by the Florida Contraband Forfeiture Act. This subsection shall only be applicable if the owner of the motor vehicle is the person charged with violation of subsection (2).
(5) This section does not apply to licensed or duly authorized racetracks, drag strips, or other designated areas set aside by proper authorities for such purposes.
History.–s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 138, ch. 99-248; s. 1, ch. 2002-251; s. 1, ch. 2005-226.
Note.–Former s. 316.186.
316.192 Reckless driving.—
(1)(a) Any person who drives any vehicle in willful or wanton disregard for the safety of persons or property is guilty of reckless driving.
(b) Fleeing a law enforcement officer in a motor vehicle is reckless driving per se.
(2) Except as provided in subsection (3), any person convicted of reckless driving shall be punished:
(a) Upon a first conviction, by imprisonment for a period of not more than 90 days or by fine of not less than $25 nor more than $500, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
(b) On a second or subsequent conviction, by imprisonment for not more than 6 months or by a fine of not less than $50 nor more than $1,000, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
(3) Any person:
(a) Who is in violation of subsection (1);
(b) Who operates a vehicle; and
(c) Who, by reason of such operation, causes:
1. Damage to the property or person of another commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
2. Serious bodily injury to another commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. The term “serious bodily injury” means an injury to another person, which consists of a physical condition that creates a substantial risk of death, serious personal disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ.
(4) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, $5 shall be added to a fine imposed pursuant to this section. The clerk shall remit the $5 to the Department of Revenue for deposit in the Emergency Medical Services Trust Fund.
(5) In addition to any other penalty provided under this section, if the court has reasonable cause to believe that the use of alcohol, chemical substances set forth in s. 877.111, or substances controlled under chapter 893 contributed to a violation of this section, the court shall direct the person so convicted to complete a DUI program substance abuse education course and evaluation as provided in s. 316.193(5) within a reasonable period of time specified by the court. If the DUI program conducting such course and evaluation refers the person to an authorized substance abuse treatment provider for substance abuse evaluation and treatment, the directive of the court requiring completion of such course, evaluation, and treatment shall be enforced as provided in s. 322.245. The referral to treatment resulting from the DUI program evaluation may not be waived without a supporting independent psychosocial evaluation conducted by an authorized substance abuse treatment provider, appointed by the court, which shall have access to the DUI program psychosocial evaluation before the independent psychosocial evaluation is conducted. The court shall review the results and recommendations of both evaluations before determining the request for waiver. The offender shall bear the full cost of this procedure. If a person directed to a DUI program substance abuse education course and evaluation or referred to treatment under this subsection fails to report for or complete such course, evaluation, or treatment, the DUI program shall notify the court and the department of the failure. Upon receipt of such notice, the department shall cancel the person’s driving privilege, notwithstanding the terms of the court order or any suspension or revocation of the driving privilege. The department may reinstate the driving privilege upon verification from the DUI program that the education, evaluation, and treatment are completed. The department may temporarily reinstate the driving privilege on a restricted basis upon verification that the offender is currently participating in treatment and has completed the DUI education course and evaluation requirement. If the DUI program notifies the department of the second failure to complete treatment, the department shall reinstate the driving privilege only after notice of successful completion of treatment from the DUI program.
History.–s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 23, ch. 85-167; s. 1, ch. 85-337; s. 1, ch. 88-5; s. 17, ch. 91-255; s. 31, ch. 92-78; s. 10, ch. 94-306; s. 4, ch. 99-234; s. 9, ch. 2001-122; s. 1, ch. 2001-147; s. 9, ch. 2006-290.
Note.–Former s. 316.029.